這幾個國家的首都大家最容易搞錯 來更新一下腦內暫存吧!!

2019-08-05
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日前與團隊在洽談播客聯航即將要開闢的新航線,許多熱門的城市出乎我們的意料之外竟然不是首都,因此我們認為有必要統整一下,讓大家更新腦內的暫存記憶~

Recently, we have been negotiating about the new route of United Blogger Airlines is going to be opened. Many popular cities are not the capital city as we have known all along. Therefore, we have to rectify the mistakes and make sure you get it right.

 

巴西/Brazil

(Photo by ckturistando on Unsplash
 

不要懷疑,真的不是「里約(Rio)」,更不是「聖保羅(Sao paulo)」,「巴西利亞(Brasilia)」才是正確答案。巴西政府於1960年4月21日將首都由里約遷往巴西利亞,至今將近60年了,而這一甲子的時間也讓巴西利亞成為巴西的第四大城,創造出巴西全國平均三倍的人均GDP。而最多數人所熟知且容易誤認的里約熱內盧是位在巴西東南方的一座城市,也是巴西的第二大城(第一大城是聖保羅)。

In general, we consider that Rio or Sao Paulo is capital of Brazil, but the truth is Brasilia. The Brazilian government moved the capital from Rio to Brasilia on April 21, 1960. It has been nearly 60 years since then, and Brasilia became the fourth largest city in Brazil. Brasilia is estimated to be Brazil’s 3rd most populous city. Moreover, Rio de Janeiro is a city in southeastern Brazil and also the second largest city in Brazil. By the way the biggest city is Sao Paulo. 
 

瑞士/Switzerland

(Photo by Carol Jeng on Unsplash
 

去過瑞士的朋友都一定造訪過「日內瓦(Geneva)」以及「蘇黎士(Zurich )」,雖然日內瓦是瑞士的第二大城,蘇黎士是世界的金融中心之一也是瑞士聯邦的最大城,但瑞士的首都卻是在「伯恩(Bern)」。伯恩的面積不大,最值得造訪的是它的舊城區,走到哪都能見到塔樓、鵝卵石路面、噴泉以及紅瓦屋頂,這些在大都市少見到的元素讓遊客來到伯恩時能完全放鬆自我,漫步其中去感受人生難得的平靜,也因此獲得世界最佳的居住城市之一美名。

Geneva and Zurich are the famous sightseeing spot in Switzerland. Although Geneva is the second largest city in Switzerland, Zurich is one of the world's financial centers and the largest city in the Swiss Confederation, but the capital of Switzerland is in Bern. The most worthwhile tourist attraction is the historic old town, where you can see towers, medieval streets, fountains and red tile roofs within and around it. You can completely relax yourself, walk around and enjoy the peace of life. Thus Bern often noted in lists of the best cities to live in the world.


 

西班牙/Spain

(Photo by Carol Jeng on Unsplash
 

說到西班牙,大家腦中浮現的畫面就是位在「巴塞隆納(Barcelona)」且百年來都未完工的「聖家堂(Sagrada Familia)」(自1882年便開始動工),多數民眾會因它的知名度高而誤以為巴塞隆納就是首都,其實真正的首都在「馬德里(Madrid)」,而最為眾人熟知的便是足球隊「皇家馬德里」。馬德里位在西班牙中部,不僅是首都,也是該國的第一大城,因此許多知名企業總部以及世界重要組織都設在此。

We always impressed by the incomplete building  "Sagrada Familia” in Barcelona. It has not been completed in the past 100 years since 1882. Because of its high reputation, people consider that Barcelona is the capital city in Spain. In fact, Madrid is the capital city. "Real Madrid” the football team is absolutely well-known to most of us. Madrid is located in central Spain, not only the capital, but also the largest city. Therefore many world-renowned corporate headquarters and world organizations are located here.

土耳其/Turkey

(Photo by Febiyan on Unsplash

 

猜錯了吧,也不是你以為的「伊斯坦堡(İstanbul )」,首都其實是在「安卡拉(Ankara)」。安卡拉是僅次於伊斯坦堡的第二大城,也是土耳其的政治、經濟、文化、交通和貿易的中心,許多人都說安卡拉沒有景點,事實上安卡拉也是座古城,建議來到這可以參觀「安納托利亞文明博物館(Anatolian Civilization Museum)」、「安卡拉城堡(Ankara Castle)」來認識土耳其的歷史。而說到伊斯坦堡之所以讓大家誤認為首都,很大一部分原因是地理位置。位在歐亞的交界處,博斯普魯斯海峽讓伊斯坦堡與小亞細亞隔海相望,往來多為世界各國的商旅以及政要,因此成為土耳其極為重要的樞紐中心。

Most of the people consider that Istanbul is the capital city of Turkey. In fact, the capital is Ankara. Ankara is the second largest city in Turkey, the main center of politics, economy, culture, transportation and trade in Turkey. Ankara is an ancient city. If you have interested to visit here, we would like to recommend you these two attractions, The Anatolian Civilization Museum and Ankara Castle. The reason why people are mistaken by the fact of the capital is probably because of its geographical location. It is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosporus strait (which separates Europe and Asia) between the Sea of Marmara and Black Sea. Its commercial and historical center lies on the European side, so it is one of the important central part of Turkey.

越南/Vietnam

(Photo by Josh Stewart on Unsplash
 

要認定越南的首都,首先要先定義時間,因為在南北越合併統一之前,北越的首都是「河內(Hanoi)」,南越則是「西貢(Saigon)」,也就是「胡志明市(Ho Chi Minh City)」,而統一之後,河內依舊被定位為首都,至於胡志明市則因過去法屬殖民所保留下的文化與基礎設施,造就成為越南的經濟、文化、貿易與交通要塞中心。南北越狹長的地形,鐵路建設從過去保留至今仍沒有太大的改善,從南到北的鐵路交通耗時,因此在航空界衍生一個很特殊的現象就是國內線可以看到使用空中巴士的A350、波音的787這種中大型廣體客機。詳細說明請參閱瘋狂機師詹姆士日前來men’s uno 直播的說法  (影片時間為第25分10秒)

How to define the capital of Vietnam? First, you have to define the time. Before North and South Vietnam were merged to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, the capital of North Vietnam is Hanoi, while South Vietnam is Saigon, which is also known as Ho Chi Minh City. However, Hanoi is still a capital city after reunification of Vietnam. As for Ho Chi Minh City, it has become the center of Vietnam's economic, cultural, trade and transportation. Unfortunately, the railway system has not been improved since the past, it will take plenty of time to travel from South to North. Therefore, a very special phenomenon happened in the aviation industry is that you can see the A350 and the Boeing 787 Dreamliner in domestic line. For more details, please kindly refer to The Statement of the Crazy Pilot James came to men’s uno live (skip to 25’10’’)


 

加拿大/Canada

(Photo by Clem Sim on Unsplash
 

加拿大的首都正確是「渥太華(Ottawa)」,並非「多倫多(Toronto)」、「溫哥華(Vancouver)」。1857年12月31日,由當時的維多利亞女王所選定作為首都的城市,而渥太華是加拿大的第四大城市,也是該國生活水平高、失業率低以及治安良好的城市。著名的景點有「國會山(Parliament Hill)」、「麗都運河(Rideau Canal)」、「戰爭博物館(Canadian War Museum)」等,其中麗都運河完工的時間自1832年,它包括47個石建水閘和53個水壩,在當時算是工程界的一項重大里程碑。

The capital of Canada is Ottawa, not Toronto or Vancouver. On December 31, 1857, Ottawa was chosen by the Queen Victoria as the capital city. Ottawa is the fourth largest city in Canada. A city with high standards of living, low unemployment rate and good security. The famous attractions include "Parliament Hill", "Rideau Canal", "Canadian War Museum", etc. The Rideau Canal was completed in 1832, including 47 sluices and 53 dams, such an important milestone in Canada. 

澳洲/Australia

(Photo by Aditya Joshi on Unsplash
 

澳洲的首都產生的由來算是有趣的,當時「墨爾本(Melbourne)」以及「雪梨(Sydney)」都在爭取首都,而在1908年由聯邦政府以折衷的地理位置方式決定在這裡座城市之間選擇「坎培拉(Canberra)」作為首都。而坎培拉是一個內陸的城市,由於是首都,因此公務人員居多,失業率也跟著低,相對物價偏高。在坎培拉周圍的著名景點中,車程距離僅45分鐘的納瑪吉國家公園(Namadgi National Park)是值得前來探索的,之所以用「探索」二字來形容就是公園內有許多地點可供攀爬、繩降以及保留許多原住民的文化遺跡。

The origins of the Australian capital were interesting. At the time, Melbourne and Sydney were fighting for the capital. In 1908, the federal government decided to choose Canberra as a capital which is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory. Canberra is an inland city. But it has a large number of civil servants in the city. Even though the unemployment rate is  low, but the cost living is pretty high.

Among the famous attractions around Canberra, the Namadgi National Park is highly recommended  to be exploring, which is only 45 minutes drive. There are many places for climbing, abseiling and retaining the cultural heritage of many Aboriginal people.

 

印度/India

(Photo by Dewang Gupta on Unsplash
 

印度的首都並非「孟買(Mumbai)」,雖然孟買是印度的第一大城,但真正的首都是「新德里(New Delhi)」。新德里位在印度的西北部,在2013年前的統計,新德里的人口在世界都市當中排名第四多。由於新德里基礎建設落後,人民的觀念守舊,所有的交通都仰賴一般機動車輛,因此這座城市的空氣污染嚴重,比起北京是有過之而無不及。另外這座城市治安敗壞是出了名的,尤其是強姦案頻傳,建議婦女們最好不要獨自前往旅行。

Although Mumbai is the largest city, but it is not a capital of India. The real capital is New Delhi. New Delhi is located in the northwest of India. According to 2013, New Delhi is the fourth most populous city in the world. Due to the backward city’s infrastructure in New Delhi, the close-minded of people, and the undeveloped transportation. Therefore, the air pollution occurs in the city is a serious issue. In addition, the security is a risk, especially the rape cases, basically women should not be traveling alone.

南非/South Africa

(Photo by John O'Nolan on Unsplash

 

南非很特別,有三個首都。首先是大家比較熟知的「開普敦(Cape Town)」,開普敦是南非的第二大城市,國會以及政府重要機關多半設置在此,主要功能在於立法制定政策的所在之都。另外一個為行政首都「普勒托利亞(Pretoria)」,也就是南非總統以及各國重要使館的所在之都。第三個則是作為司法之都的「布隆泉(Bloemfontein)」,布隆泉位在南非中部高原,夏熱,冬寒有霜,是該國中部地區農產集散和加工中心。相信多數人對於南非比較熟知的首都還是開普敦,開普敦的重要景點就是「桌山國家公園」(Table Mountain National Park),公園擁有兩個著名的景觀地貌:國家公園名字的由來——桌山,以及非洲最靠西南端的「好望角(Cape of Good Hope)」。

South Africa has three capitals. The first is Cape Town. Cape Town is the second largest city in South Africa. Most of the Parliaments and  government agencies are located here. It is legislative capital of South Africa. The second capital is located in Pretoria (the executive capital where the President is based). The third is Bloemfontein (the judicial capital where the Supreme Court of Appeal is located). Most of the people are familiar with the capital of Cape Town. The outstanding attraction in Cape Town is “Table Mountain National Park”. The park has two famous landscapes: Table Mountain(the origin name of the park) and the Cape of Good Hope. 

日本/Japan

(Photo by Sorasak on Unsplash
 

日本的首都不是「京都(Kyoto)」,也不是「東京(Tokyo)」,更不是「大阪(Osaka)」!因為1950年公布的『首都建設法』雖然明確寫著「東京是首都」,但其實此條法律早在1956年已經廢止了!現在剩下的頂多是同年發表的『首都圏整備法』,但裡面也只有寫「東京周遭是首都圈」,並沒有寫到「東京是首都」!!不過更冷的知識是,廣島反而曾是臨時首都,因為在明治時期的中日戰爭時,廣島曾是國會大本營,但也都是以前了~!所以日本是沒有首都的喔!

The capital of Japan is not "Kyoto", nor "Tokyo", nor "Osaka"! Although the "Capital Construction Law” has defined that “Tokyo is the capital”, but this law was abolished as early as 1956! The Capital Area Consolidation Law of 1956 states: “In this Act, the term ‘capital area’ shall denote a broad region comprising both the territory of the Tokyo Metropolis as well as outlying regions designated by cabinet order.” Non of the law has clearly mentioned that “Tokyo is one of the capital of Japan”. And also Hiroshima was once of the capital due to Hiroshima was a center of military activities during the imperial era. Therefore, there’s no capital city in Japan at all. 

 

 

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